Introduction to Logic
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with CEU Certificate*

15Lessons

17Exams &
Assignments 
7Hours
average time 
0.7CEUs
Course Description
One of the very earliest forms of academic study, long before science was even a thing and gods were still believed to reside in the mountains, was the examination into logic. Nowadays, the concept of logic seems to just mean an ability to apply rational thought, but in reality, logic is much more than that. Logic is the system of rules that governs what is rational, and what is not.
In this course, we will introduce many of the concepts that are involved in various forms of logical study. We will examine both formal and informal logic, differentiate between inductive and deductive reasoning, and take a look at some of the more advanced schools of logic. Because formal logic is a study focused on taking the colloquial out of any statements and reducing them to a pure abstract, some of the following lessons will involve an introduction to some of the formal systems and languages involved. For the most part, though, this introductory course will try to relate as many concepts as possible using plain English, in order to make the lessons more accessible and comprehensible. In this course, we will also review a number of paradoxes and fallacies that are inherent in logic, as well as some of the history and the applications possible with logic.
The aim of this course is not to give a comprehensive understanding of logic, as that would take a number of very involved degrees. Hopefully, it will leave you with a clearer understanding of logic, both in the abstract, and that you can apply to everyday life.
What is Logic?
Put as simply as possible, logic is the study of constructing and deconstructing an argument that something is true or false. A set of consistent rules are established, and applying those rules to any particular argument determines whether the argument is valid or invalid. Logic cannot be applied to any statements that do not have a binary answer; a statement must be capable of being proven true or false for logic to be applied to it.
Language and Logic
Logic is primarily involved with the thought process behind determining whether something is true or not. Because thought processes are fundamentally abstract, logic is fundamentally based upon the language a concept is expressed in. The language itself doesn't matter; many of the first rational arguments were conducted in Greek, so their logic was based upon Greek. The concepts and examples we will discuss in this course will be in English, but the principles could be extended to any other language. There is a fundamental issue with language, however: language changes. Words evolve, sometimes over the course of centuries, sometimes much sooner. Dialects form in different regions, making the same sentence in one region mean an entirely different thing somewhere else. Because language cannot provide a rigid structure for logical arguments, there have been a number of attempts to create logical systems that are not reliant upon language.
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Course Lessons
Lesson 1: Introduction to Logic
 Review 3 Articles: The Basics of Philosophy; Philosophy of Logic; Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy  Validity and Soundness
 Take Survey: Reasons for Taking this Course
 Complete Assignment: My Logic for Taking this Course...
 Complete: Lesson 1 Exam
Lesson 2: The History of Logic
 Review Article: Brittanica: History of Logic
 Complete: Lesson 2 Exam
Lesson 3: Argumentation Theory
 Review 3 Articles: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Informal Logic; Argumentation Theory; Argumentation Theory: A Very Short Introduction
 Complete: Lesson 3 Exam
Lesson 4: Formal vs. Informal Logic
 Review 2 Articles: Deductive Reasoning vs. Inductive Reasoning; The Relationship Between Formal and Informal Reasoning
 Complete: Lesson 4 Exam
Lesson 5: Syllogisms and Propositions
 Review Article: Syllogism Made Easy
 Complete: Lesson 5 Exam
Lesson 6: Logical Form
 Review 2 Articles: What is Logical Form?; Logical Form and Formal Validity
 Complete: Lesson 6 Exam
Lesson 7: Natural Deduction
 Review 2 Articles: Natural Deduction for Propositional Logic; Propositional Connective
 Complete: Lesson 7 Exam
Lesson 8: Modal Logic
 Review 3 Articles: Modal Logic: A Contemporary View; Modal Logic Explained; A Brief Introduction to Modal Logic
 Complete: Lesson 8 Exam
Lesson 9: Statistics and Probability
 Review 2 Articles: Probability and Logc; Bayesian Logic
 Complete: Lesson 9 Exam
Lesson 10: Methods of Inductive Reasoning
 Review 2 Articles: Deductive and Inductive Arguments; Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: The Problem of Induction
 Complete: Lesson 10 Exam
Lesson 11: Formal Logical Fallacies
 Review 2 Articles: Rhetorical Fallacies; Logically Fallacious
 Complete: Lesson 11 Exam
Lesson 12: Informal Logical Fallacies
 Complete: Lesson 12 Exam
Lesson 13: Paradoxes
 Review Article: Logical Paradoxes
 Complete: Lesson 13 Exam
Lesson 14: Can Logic Be Trusted?
 Review 5 Articles: Reason and Faith; Philosophy and Christian Ideology; Medieval Philosophy; Theory and Observation in Science; Logic in religious and nonreligious belief systems
 Complete: Lesson 14 Exam
Lesson 15: Practical Applications of Logic
 Take Poll: End of Course Poll
 Take Survey: Course Comments
 Complete: Lesson 15 Exam
 Complete: The Final Exam
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