Online Class: Introduction to Logic

In this course, we will introduce many of the concepts that are involved in various forms of logical study. We will examine both formal and informal logic, differentiate between inductive and deductive reasoning, and take a look at some of the more advanced schools of logic.

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  • 15
  • 17
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  • 1,629
    have taken this course
  • 7
    average time
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Course Description

Embark on the Enigmatic Odyssey of Logic

Long before mankind gazed at the stars through telescopes, endeavoring to unravel the mysteries of the cosmos, or embarked on perilous journeys to uncover Earth's hidden secrets, there was an academic pursuit that captivated inquisitive minds: the profound examination of logic. In an era where deities were believed to reign supreme from the lofty peaks, this ancient discipline sought to decipher the code of rationality that underpins our very existence.

Today, in our modern lexicon, 'logic' is often perceived merely as a synonym for common sense or rationality. However, the realm of logic is much richer, far-reaching, and profound. It is a meticulously constructed edifice of rules that delineates what is deemed rational and what is not.

This course promises a riveting journey into the heart of logical studies. We'll traverse the landscapes of both formal and informal logic, discern between the nuances of inductive and deductive reasoning, and explore advanced schools of logical thought. As we delve into formal logic's realm—stripping down statements to their purest, abstract essence—you'll be introduced to its intricate systems and languages. However, fear not! Our voyage will predominantly anchor in plain English, ensuring a clear and engaging learning experience. Along the way, expect intriguing detours into paradoxes, fallacies, historical insights, and the myriad applications of logic.

One might wonder, why embark on such a journey? The motive is twofold. Firstly, to demystify the classical essence of 'logic', disentangling it from its contemporary, colloquial use. And secondly, to instill a deeper appreciation and understanding of logic that transcends textbook definitions, empowering you to harness its principles in everyday life.

A Prelude to Our Journey: The Essence of Logic

At its core, logic is the art and science of constructing and dissecting arguments pertaining to truth and falsehood. It is governed by a consistent set of rules that, when adeptly applied, ascertain the validity of an argument. For logic to weave its magic, it demands binary clarity: the statement in question must be provable as true or false.

Language: The Heartbeat of Logic

At the intersection of thought and expression lies language, serving as the bedrock upon which logical edifices are built. Whether it be the eloquent arguments of ancient Greeks or the modern-day debates in English, the principles of logic remain universal, transcending linguistic boundaries. However, with the ever-evolving nature of language, riddled with dialectical variations and semantic shifts, logic's timeless pursuit has been to find a system unshackled by linguistic constraints.

Join us on this enlightening expedition, as we voyage through the mesmerizing corridors of logic, a discipline that has shaped civilizations and continues to illuminate our path in an increasingly complex world.

  • Completely Online
  • Self-Paced
  • Printable Lessons
  • Full HD Video  
  • 6 Months to Complete
  • 24/7 Availability
  • Start Anytime
  • PC & Mac Compatible
  • Android & iOS Friendly
  • Accredited CEUs
Universal Class is an IACET Accredited Provider

Course Lessons

Average Lesson Rating:
4.1 / 5 Stars (Average Rating)
"Extraordinarily Helpful"
(253 votes)

Lesson 1: Introduction to Logic

Put as simply as possible, logic is the study of constructing and deconstructing an argument that something is true or false. A set of consistent rules are established, and applying those rules to any particular argument determines whether the argument is valid or invalid. Additional lesson topics: The Basics of Philosophy; Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy; Philosophy of Logic 11 Total Points
  • Lesson 1 Video
  • Lesson discussions: Reasons for Taking this Course
  • Complete Assignment: My Logic for Taking this Course...
  • Assessment: Lesson 1 Exam

Lesson 2: The History of Logic

Unlike advancements in a field such as physics, where new discoveries often supplant established knowledge, the progressing study of logic has been more about building off of previous knowledge than disproving it. Additional lesson topics: Brittanica: History of Logic 8 Total Points
  • Lesson 2 Video
  • Assessment: Lesson 2 Exam

Lesson 3: Argumentation Theory

When you think of an argument, you probably don't conjure up a very pleasant image. Possibly it's one with lots of shouting, perhaps some stuff being thrown around Arguing has a very negative, confrontational connotation to it. Additional lesson topics: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Informal Logic; Argumentation Theory: A Very Short Introduction; Argumentation Theory 10 Total Points
  • Lesson 3 Video
  • Assessment: Lesson 3 Exam

Lesson 4: Formal vs. Informal Logic

Logic falls into two broad categories: formal logic, and informal logic. The names formal and informal, however, imply a somewhat different meaning to a modern audience than is actually intended. Additional lesson topics: Deductive Reasoning vs. Inductive Reasoning; The Relationship Between Formal and Informal Reasoning 10 Total Points
  • Lesson 4 Video
  • Assessment: Lesson 4 Exam

Lesson 5: Syllogisms and Propositions

Syllogisms are arguments made out of three statements: two premises and a conclusion. Additional lesson topics: Syllogism Made Easy 8 Total Points
  • Lesson 5 Video
  • Assessment: Lesson 5 Exam

Lesson 6: Logical Form

By now, you've probably noticed a common trend in a lot of these topics relating to the core of logic. Logic is based on some really simple concepts; so simple that you might think that they weren't really something that needed clarification. Additional lesson topics: What is Logical Form?; Logical Form; Logical Form and Formal Validity 10 Total Points
  • Lesson 6 Video
  • Assessment: Lesson 6 Exam

Lesson 7: Natural Deduction

Natural deduction is a form of proving conclusions based exclusively on given hypotheses and nothing else. Fundamentally, it is a form of writing out an argument in an abstract way, with the only relevant aspects of the equation being the hypotheses, the conclusion, and the relation between them. Additional lesson topics: Natural Deduction for Propositional Logic; Propositional Connective 7 Total Points
  • Lesson 7 Video
  • Assessment: Lesson 7 Exam

Lesson 8: Modal Logic

As early as Aristotle's first text on syllogisms, he explored the idea of modal syllogisms. There was never a complete system that was able to introduce those different modes, though. Additional lesson topics: Modal Logic: A Contemporary View; A Brief Introduction to Modal Logic; Modal Logic Explained 7 Total Points
  • Lesson 8 Video
  • Assessment: Lesson 8 Exam

Lesson 9: Statistics and Probability

While it may not seem like it, the concept of uncertainty is one that is fundamental to the idea of logic. Most of the syllogisms that we have discussed are quite certain in their assertions. Additional lesson topics: Probability and Logc; Bayesian Logic 9 Total Points
  • Lesson 9 Video
  • Assessment: Lesson 9 Exam

Lesson 10: Methods of Inductive Reasoning

Inductive reasoning is when you build a generalized conclusion from forming a case out of specific pieces of evidence, as opposed to deductive reasoning, which is when you use a general truth to identify truths about specific entities. There are a number of different established methods of using inductive reasoning to arrive at answers. Additional lesson topics: Deductive and Inductive Arguments; Mill's Methods; Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: The Problem of Induction 8 Total Points
  • Lesson 10 Video
  • Assessment: Lesson 10 Exam

Lesson 11: Formal Logical Fallacies

A fallacy is a failure in reasoning that leads to a false conclusion. In terms of an argument, using a fallacy means that you have an invalid argument. Additional lesson topics: Rhetorical Fallacies; false cause fallacy; Logically Fallacious 8 Total Points
  • Lesson 11 Video
  • Assessment: Lesson 11 Exam

Lesson 12: Informal Logical Fallacies

In this lesson, the fallacies will have to stand on their own merit, as there is no discernible issue when these arguments are represented using variables. 10 Total Points
  • Lesson 12 Video
  • Assessment: Lesson 12 Exam

Lesson 13: Paradoxes

There are, in fact, two different "types" of paradoxes, or, although I might be imitating a certain Scotsman here, there is only one "true" type of paradox, and a false paradox, also known as falsidical. 9 Total Points
  • Lesson 13 Video
  • Assessment: Lesson 13 Exam

Lesson 14: Can Logic Be Trusted?

As the classical period gave birth to a period of unprecedented comfort and safety, and thus, unprecedented amounts of people with time on their hands to actually think about the nature of existence, this became one of the first questions to be pondered. Additional lesson topics: Philosophy and Christian Ideology; Logic in religious and non-religious belief systems; Theory and Observation in Science; Reason and Faith; Medieval Philosophy 10 Total Points
  • Lesson 14 Video
  • Assessment: Lesson 14 Exam

Lesson 15: Practical Applications of Logic

As we near the end of this introduction to logic, one question might be on your mind. What was the point of all this? Is there something that all this discussion of logic has actually gotten us as a society, or is it all just more and more refined ways of defining and capturing thought experiments. 88 Total Points
  • Lesson 15 Video
  • Lesson discussions: End of Course Poll; Course Comments; Program Evaluation Follow-up Survey (End of Course)
  • Assessment: Lesson 15 Exam
  • Assessment: The Final Exam
Total Course Points

Learning Outcomes

By successfully completing this course, students will be able to:
  • Describe what logic is and why it's important to know.
  • Summarize the history of logic.
  • Define argumentation theory.
  • Define informal logic.
  • Define syllogisms and propositions.
  • Define logical form.
  • Describe natural deduction.
  • Describe modal logic.
  • Describe statistics and probability.
  • Describe methods of inductive reasoning.
  • Describe formal logical fallacies.
  • Describe informal logical fallacies.
  • Describe paradoxes.
  • Describe practical applications of logic.
  • Demonstrate mastery of lesson content at levels of 70% or higher.

Additional Course Information

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Course Title: Introduction to Logic
Course Number: 9770577
Lessons Rating: 4.1 / 5 Stars (253 votes)
Languages: English - United States, Canada and other English speaking countries
Availability: This course is online and available in all 50 states including: California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Texas, and Washington.
Last Updated: June 2023
Course Type: Self-Paced, Online Class
CEU Value: 0.7 IACET CEUs (Continuing Education Units)
CE Accreditation: Universal Class, Inc. has been accredited as an Authorized Provider by the International Association for Continuing Education and Training (IACET).
Grading Policy: Earn a final grade of 70% or higher to receive an online/downloadable CEU Certification documenting CEUs earned.
Assessment Method: Lesson assignments and review exams
Instructor: April Cordry-Moore
Syllabus: View Syllabus
Course Fee: $120.00 U.S. dollars

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Student Testimonials

  • "Instructor April Cordry Moore is a wonderful instructor. She is very patient and willing to provide feedback with explanation about mistakes I have made, so that I can improve my thinking. She was very patient when I tried to study Statistics. Although i did not do as well as I liked, it was wholly my shortcoming of earlier attempts at math." -- Judith J.
  • "It was a great course, the hardest I've taken with universalclass but that's normal given the subject. I've learned so much during the course of this class thanks to the way it was explained by the teacher in the course materials. I wouldn't change a thing about the course, it's perfect the way it is." -- Steven L.
  • "Thank you. Although I have struggled throughout this course,I have learned a lot about how the progression of modern mathematics is influenced by logic. Also other areas logic is greatly applied to in the Scientific Method. Learning more about different paradoxes was also interesting." -- Dahlila V.
  • "I didn't know that there were so many different theories and it's hard to believe I actually thought this was just a math course. It's so much more!" -- Chelsea J.
  • "Great Introduction to logic with plenty of resources to expand one's learning opportunities." -- Sean B.
  • "I thought this course was very interesting and I learned a lot from it." -- Joseph D.
  • "The course was great." -- Peter G.

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