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A Study of the Human Anatomy
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High school students, college students and those entering various healthcare fields will find this self-paced Anatomy and Physiology course to be extremely beneficial. Course goals include the following: 1.) Be able to identify the major body systems and understand what each body system does, 2.) Be able to relate how each body system works, 3.) Be able to identify and explain major cells, tissues, and organs, and 4.) Be able to identify and explain functions of central muscles and bones.
Class lessons will cover the following topics: Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology, Chemistry, Cells, Tissues, The Integumentary System, The Skeletal System, The Muscular System, The Nervous System, The Sensory System, The Endocrine System, The Cardiovascular System, The Lymphatic System, The Respiratory System, The Digestive System, The Urinary System, and The Reproductive System.
This self-paced anatomy and physiology course will cover all the bodily systems playing a major role in human anatomy. The material is presented in a practical and comprehensive manner. The focus of the course is on the need-to-know facts that must be understood in order to pursue any healthcare career or related education in the field of science. These easy to follow lessons are ideal for anyone requiring a solid understanding of how the human body works.
Lessons include the following topics:
The Skeletal System
The Integumentary System
The Muscular System
The Nervous System
The Sensory System
The Endocrine System
The Cardiovascular System
The Lymphatic System
The Respiratory System
The Digestive System
The Urinary System
The Reproductive System
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Anatomy and physiology are the opposite sides of the same biological coin. Anatomy is the study of the body's internal and external structures while physiology studies the function of those structures, both singularly and in conjunction with one another.
Anatomy, which is sometimes called morphology, provides a map of how a body is put together, human or otherwise.
Physiology is akin to an instruction manual. Form and function must both be considered to fully understand the human body.
The Major Characteristics of Life
Physiology is the study of living things, but what exactly does it mean to be alive? It is difficult to isolate a single characteristic that separates all living entities from non-living ones. For example, some might say the ability to reproduce is a necessary trait to indicate life. But mules--which are definitely living offsprings of a horse and donkey--cannot reproduce. So physiologists consider a number of traits that all living things have in common and thus identify life based on the following characteristics:
- Absorption: the passage of nutrients from digested food through membranes and into body fluids
- Assimilation: the ability to change nutrients of absorbed substances into chemically different forms
- Circulation: movement of substances throughout the body via body fluids such as blood
- Digestion: chemically breaking down food into its molecular components and getting rid of wastes
- Growth: in general, defined as increasing in size without changing basic shape
- Movement: the ability to change position or internal structures
- Reproduction: creating offspring
- Respiration: can mean the act of breathing but on a cellular level; it's a metabolic process that uses oxygen to release energy from glucose
- Responsiveness: reacting to one's environment, such as pupils contracting in light, the rush of adrenalin when confronted with danger or fear, or a plant bending toward sunlight
- Excretion: the removal of wastes created by metabolic activity
Everything that is alive--from cells to elephants--relies on homeostasis, which is the way the physiological systems work together in living organisms to maintain a stable internal environment, despite changing external or environmental conditions. In humans, that means regulating things like temperature, pH, hydration, and blood oxygen levels.
All living things also require some sort of metabolism, which is commonly understood to mean breaking food down and turning it into energy. But in physiological terms, it refers to the entire range of an organism's biochemical processes. These metabolic pathways involve enzymes that transform one substance into another substance, by either breaking one down (catabolism) or creating a new one (anabolism).
Levels of Anatomical Organization
Anatomists organize the human body into different levels, each level increasing in complexity.
- Atoms join together to form molecules, such as H2O.
- Molecules combine to form macromolecules such as polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates), monosaccharides (simple sugars), and fats (lipids).
- Macromolecules combine to create organelles like mitochondrion and ribosomes.
- Organelles are part of a cell, the basic unit of a body.
- Cells are organized into tissues such as muscle, neural, and cardiac.
- Tissues are organized into organs, from the brain to the large intestine and everything in between.
- Organs working together are organ systems, which include the digestive system, the endocrine system, and the nervous system.
- Organ systems make up an organism, such as humans, dogs, or plants.
Spatial Organization of the Human Body
To accurately reference the structures they study, anatomists use positional and directional terms. In order to have a common standard for describing those positions of body parts, it is assumed the person is in what is called anatomical position: the body standing upright, feet together, palms facing forward. From this starting point, all the directional terms are relative to the anatomical position.
There are three main body planes: the sagittal, which divides the body into left and right halves; the frontal which divides the body into front and back halves (ventral and dorsal, or anterior and posterior); and the transverse which divides the body into upper (toward the head) and lower (toward the feet) halves (superior and inferior).
Additionally, the outer body is divided into two regions: the axial, which includes the head, neck and trunk, and the appendicular which consists of the limbs.
The same terms are used when describing the skeleton. The skull, ribs, and spinal vertebrae belong to the axial skeleton. These bones protect the major organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs. Also included in the axial skeleton are the three inner ear bones--malleus, incus, and stapes--known collectively as the ossicles, and the hyoid in the throat. There are 80 bones in the axial skeleton.
The appendicular skeleton consists of the 126 bones of our extremities--legs, arms, hands, and feet--which facilitate movement.
The body is a complex organism of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. While anatomy describes the structure of how it is physically put together, physiology explains how all the components of the human organism work, individually and together, to maintain life.
By successfully completing this course, students will be able to:
- Describe the chemistry basics involved in Anatomy and Physiology.
- Describe the function of cells.
- Identify different types of tissues and their functions.
- Describe and identify specific parts and key terms of the Integumentary System.
- Describe and identify specific parts and key terms of the Skeletal System.
- Describe and identify specific parts and key terms of the Muscular System.
- Describe and identify specific parts and key terms of the Nervous System and the Sensory System.
- Describe and identify specific parts and key terms of the Endocrine System and Lymphatic System.
- Describe and identify specific parts and key terms of the Cardiovascular System and Respiratory System.
- Describe and identify specific parts and key terms of the Digestive System, Urinary System, Reproductive System, and
- Demonstrate mastery of lesson content at levels of 70% or higher.
Anatomy and Physiology Course Lessons
Lesson 1. Introduction to Anatomy and PhysiologyThis introductory lesson will define and outline the organization of human anatomy and physiology.
Lesson 2. Chemistry BasicsChemistry Basics and definitions of chemistry terms.
Lesson 3. Cells - The Foundation of LifeCells and their importance in life.
Lesson 4. Tissues (Different Types and Functions)Tissues: learn about different types and functions.
Lesson 5. The Integumentary SystemThe Integumentary System: what is it, what does it do, and how does it work.
Lesson 6. The Skeletal SystemThe Skeletal System: what is it, what does it do, and how does it work.
Lesson 7. The Muscular SystemThe Muscular System: what is it, what does it do, and how does it work.
Lesson 8. The Nervous SystemThe Nervous System: What is it? What does it do? And how does it work?
Lesson 9. The Sensory SystemThe Sensory System: what is it, what does it do, and how does it work.
Lesson 10. The Endocrine SystemThe Endocrine System: what is it, what does it do, and how does it work.
Lesson 11. The Cardiovascular SystemThe Cardiovascular System: what is it, what does it do, and how it works.
Lesson 12, The Lymphatic SystemThe Lymphatic System: what is it, what does it do, and how it works.
Lesson 13. The Respiratory SystemThe Respiratory System: what is it, what does it do, and how does it work.
Lesson 14. The Digestive SystemThe Digestive System: what is it, what does it do, and how does it work.
Lesson 15. The Urinary SystemThe Urinary System: what is it, what does it do, and how does it work.
Lesson 16. The Reproductive SystemThe Reproductive System: what is it, what does it do, and how does it work.
The Final ExamThe Final Exam
|Course Title ||: ||Anatomy and Physiology 101 |
|CEU Value ||: || |
|Standard ||: || |
Course Adheres to the ANSI/IACET 1-2007 Standard
|Accreditation ||: || |
|Languages ||: ||English - United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and other English speaking countries |
|Course Number ||: ||8900157 |
|Course Type ||: ||College Level |
|Course URL ||: || |
|Course Rating ||: || |
|Instructor ||: || |
|Syllabus ||: || |
|Grading Policy ||: || |
Earn a final grade of 70% or higher to receive a CEU Certificate documenting CEUs earned
|Assessment Method ||: || |
Lesson assignments and review exams
|Course Review ||: || |
|Duration ||: ||Continuous: Enroll anytime! |
|Requirements ||: ||View Technical Requirements |
|Course Fee ||: || |
Basic Course: $65.00 (no CEU Certificate)
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