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The Integumentary System
The Nervous System
The Sensory System
The Endocrine System
The Cardiovascular System
The Lymphatic System
The Respiratory System
The Digestive System
The Urinary System
Anatomy, which is sometimes called morphology, provides a map of how a body is put together, human or otherwise.
Physiology is akin to an instruction manual. Form and function must both be considered to fully understand the human body.
Physiology is the study of living things, but what exactly does it mean to be alive? It is difficult to isolate a single characteristic that separates all living entities from non-living ones. For example, some might say the ability to reproduce is a necessary trait to indicate life. But mules--which are definitely living offsprings of a horse and donkey--cannot reproduce. So physiologists consider a number of traits that all living things have in common and thus identify life based on the following characteristics:
- Absorption: the passage of nutrients from digested food through membranes and into body fluids
- Assimilation: the ability to change nutrients of absorbed substances into chemically different forms
- Circulation: movement of substances throughout the body via body fluids such as blood
- Digestion: chemically breaking down food into its molecular components and getting rid of wastes
- Growth: in general, defined as increasing in size without changing basic shape
- Movement: the ability to change position or internal structures
- Reproduction: creating offspring
- Respiration: can mean the act of breathing but on a cellular level; it's a metabolic process that uses oxygen to release energy from glucose
- Responsiveness: reacting to one's environment, such as pupils contracting in light, the rush of adrenalin when confronted with danger or fear, or a plant bending toward sunlight
- Excretion: the removal of wastes created by metabolic activity
Everything that is alive--from cells to elephants--relies on homeostasis, which is the way the physiological systems work together in living organisms to maintain a stable internal environment, despite changing external or environmental conditions. In humans, that means regulating things like temperature, pH, hydration, and blood oxygen levels.
All living things also require some sort of metabolism, which is commonly understood to mean breaking food down and turning it into energy. But in physiological terms, it refers to the entire range of an organism's biochemical processes. These metabolic pathways involve enzymes that transform one substance into another substance, by either breaking one down (catabolism) or creating a new one (anabolism).
Levels of Anatomical Organization
Anatomists organize the human body into different levels, each level increasing in complexity.
- Atoms join together to form molecules, such as H2O.
- Molecules combine to form macromolecules such as polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates), monosaccharides (simple sugars), and fats (lipids).
- Macromolecules combine to create organelles like mitochondrion and ribosomes.
- Organelles are part of a cell, the basic unit of a body.
- Cells are organized into tissues such as muscle, neural, and cardiac.
- Tissues are organized into organs, from the brain to the large intestine and everything in between.
- Organs working together are organ systems, which include the digestive system, the endocrine system, and the nervous system.
- Organ systems make up an organism, such as humans, dogs, or plants.
Spatial Organization of the Human Body
There are three main body planes: the sagittal, which divides the body into left and right halves; the frontal which divides the body into front and back halves (ventral and dorsal, or anterior and posterior); and the transverse which divides the body into upper (toward the head) and lower (toward the feet) halves (superior and inferior).
Additionally, the outer body is divided into two regions: the axial, which includes the head, neck and trunk, and the appendicular which consists of the limbs.
The same terms are used when describing the skeleton. The skull, ribs, and spinal vertebrae belong to the axial skeleton. These bones protect the major organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs. Also included in the axial skeleton are the three inner ear bones--malleus, incus, and stapes--known collectively as the ossicles, and the hyoid in the throat. There are 80 bones in the axial skeleton.
The appendicular skeleton consists of the 126 bones of our extremities--legs, arms, hands, and feet--which facilitate movement.
The body is a complex organism of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. While anatomy describes the structure of how it is physically put together, physiology explains how all the components of the human organism work, individually and together, to maintain life.
Class lessons will cover the following topics: Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology, Chemistry, Cells, Tissues, The Integumentary System, The Skeletal System, The Muscular System, The Nervous System, The Sensory System, The Endocrine System, The Cardiovascular System, The Lymphatic System, The Respiratory System, The Digestive System, The Urinary System, and The Reproductive System.
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Anatomy and Physiology Course Lessons
Lesson 1. Introduction to Anatomy and PhysiologyThis introductory lesson will define and outline the organization of human anatomy and physiology.
Lesson 2. Chemistry BasicsChemistry Basics and definitions of chemistry terms.
Lesson 3. Cells - The Foundation of LifeCells and their importance in life.
Lesson 4. Tissues (Different Types and Functions)Tissues: learn about different types and functions.
Lesson 5. The Integumentary SystemThe Integumentary System: what is it, what does it do, and how does it work.
Lesson 6. The Skeletal SystemThe Skeletal System: what is it, what does it do, and how does it work.
Lesson 7. The Muscular SystemThe Muscular System: what is it, what does it do, and how does it work.
Lesson 8. The Nervous SystemThe Nervous System: What is it? What does it do? And how does it work?
Lesson 9. The Sensory SystemThe Sensory System: what is it, what does it do, and how does it work.
Lesson 10. The Endocrine SystemThe Endocrine System: what is it, what does it do, and how does it work.
Lesson 11. The Cardiovascular SystemThe Cardiovascular System: what is it, what does it do, and how it works.
Lesson 12. The Lymphatic SystemThe Lymphatic System: what is it, what does it do, and how it works.
Lesson 13. The Respiratory SystemThe Respiratory System: what is it, what does it do, and how does it work.
Lesson 14. The Digestive SystemThe Digestive System: what is it, what does it do, and how does it work.
Lesson 15. The Urinary SystemThe Urinary System: what is it, what does it do, and how does it work.
Lesson 16. The Reproductive SystemThe Reproductive System: what is it, what does it do, and how does it work.
The Final ExamThe Final Exam
- Document Your Lifelong Learning Achievements
- Earn an Official Certificate Documenting Course Hours and CEUs
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Learning OutcomesBy successfully completing this course, students will be able to:
- Define anatomy and physiology.
- Describe chemistry basics.
- Describe cells - the foundation of life.
- Describe tissues (different types and functions).
- Recognize summarize the integumentary system..
- Recognize the important parts of the skeletal system, muscular system, nervous system, and sensory system.
- Summarize the major parts of the endocrine system.
- Recognize the major parts of the cardiovascular system, lymphatic system, and the respiratory system.
- Summarize the major components of the digestive system, urinary system, and the reproductive system, and
- Demonstrate mastery of lesson content at levels of 70% or higher.
|Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Assignment||Assignment||20|
|Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Quiz||Exam||55|
|Review of Basic Chemistry:||Assignment||50|
|Basic Chemistry Quiz||Exam||35|
|Review of Cells||Assignment||50|
|Review of Tissues||Assignment||50|
|The Integumentary System Assignment||Assignment||25|
|The Integumentary System||Exam||50|
|The Skeletal System Assignment||Assignment||50|
|The Skeletal System||Exam||75|
|The Muscular System Assignment||Assignment||50|
|The Muscular System||Exam||80|
|The Nervous System Assignment||Assignment||50|
|The Nervous System||Exam||85|
|The Sensory System Assignment||Assignment||50|
|The Sensory System||Exam||70|
|The Endocrine System Assignment||Assignment||50|
|The Endocrine System||Exam||55|
|The Cardiovascular System Assignment||Assignment||50|
|The Cardiovascular System||Exam||22|
|The Lymphatic System||Assignment||50|
|The Lymphatic System||Exam||50|
|The Respiratory System Assignment||Assignment||50|
|The Respiratory System||Exam||70|
|The Digestive System Assignment||Assignment||50|
|The Digestive System||Exam||50|
|The Urinary System||Exam||18|
|The Reproductive System||Exam||38|
|The Final Exam||Exam||339|
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