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Organic chemistry is a branch of general chemistry that focuses on carbon-based compounds. Starting with the simplest molecules, alkanes (carbon chains bound to hydrogen atoms), the course expands to examine more complex molecules, including their basic properties, how they can be synthesized, and how they interact with other molecules.
This highly qualitative course begins by laying a foundation in quantum theory, which describes how atoms interact to form bonds and, thus, molecules. In addition to considering at chemical interactions, the course also takes a brief look at stereochemistry (the arrangement of molecules in three dimensions) and spectroscopy (using light to determine the composition of materials). The course culminates with a brief look at some elements of biochemistry, which examines the behavior of chemicals in biological systems (organisms). Emphases throughout the course include IUPAC nomenclature for organic molecules, the behavior and properties of chemicals with a variety of functional groups, and conceptual methods of synthesizing different organic compounds.
Although the course is not nearly an exhaustive examination of this highly complex subject, it provides a solid foundation for students who simply want to learn more about the subject or who want to review the material in preparation for an introductory or more advanced course in high school or college. Because the course is qualitative rather than quantitative, students do not require extensive math skills to complete the course successfully. Nevertheless, the course provides a solid conceptual understanding for those who wish to study elsewhere the quantitative aspects of the topic.
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Lesson 1 - Bonding and Molecular Structure I: Chemical BondingIn this lesson, we begin our study of organic chemistry by introducing some fundamental concepts of chemical bonding between atoms.
Lesson 2 - Bonding and Molecular Structure II: The Structure and Representation of Organic MoleculesHaving studied the basics of molecular bonding, we now turn to how to represent molecules (including simple drawings) and how to understand and predict their structure in three dimensions.
Lesson 3 - Acids and BasesIn this lesson, we will briefly consider several models of acids and bases and use these models to evaluate interactions of these substances.
Lesson 4 - Alkanes and Cycloalkanes I: NomenclatureThe lesson focuses on a systematic approach to nomenclature for the most basic organic molecules--alkanes and cycloalkanes.
Lesson 5 - Alkanes and Cycloalkanes II: Bonding, Intermolecular Forces, and Functional GroupsThis lesson looks more closely at bonding in alkanes (and, by extension, cycloalkanes), as well as some of the basic characteristics of these molecules.
Lesson 6 - Nomenclature for Alkyl Halides, Alcohols, Alkenes, and AlkynesAlkyl halides and alcohols are often involved in synthesis of alkenes and alkynes, for instance, so this lesson focuses on extending IUPAC rules to these molecules.
Lesson 7 - Alkenes/Alkynes I: Properties and SynthesisIn this lesson, we consider the behavior of orbitals in forming double and triple bonds in alkenes and alkynes, respectively.
Lesson 8 - Alkenes and Alkynes II: Addition ReactionsIn this lesson, we will largely be considering the reactions that perform the opposite of those we discussed in the previous lesson.
Lesson 9 - Nucleophilic Substitution of Alkyl HalidesIn this lesson, we consider reactions that involve replacement of one functional group by another.
Lesson 10 - StereochemistryIn this lesson, we will focus more on stereochemistry, including chirality.
Lesson 11 - Free Radical ReactionsIn this lesson, we consider reactions--and the chemical intermediates that cause them--that proceed by a fundamentally different mechanism than we have seen thus for.
Lesson 12 - Aromatic Compounds (Arenes)This lesson focuses on the characteristics and nomenclature of these compounds.
Lesson 13 - Reactions of Aromatic CompoundsOf course, we cannot cover all of the possible reactions, but the ones we will study here are some representative examples that further elucidate the behavior of arenes.
Lesson 14 - NMR, Mass Spectrometry, and Infrared (IR) SpectroscopyIn this lesson, we take a break from our discussions of chemical reactions and turn to the problem of how to identify chemicals in a particular compound.
Lesson 15 - Synthesis and Reactions of AlcoholsThis lesson focuses on how to synthesize alcohols and some other reactions that the molecules undergo.
Lesson 16 - Ethers and EpoxidesIn addition to looking briefly at some other synthesis reactions, we will examine several other reactions that ethers and epoxides undergo.
Lesson 17 - Aldehydes and Ketones 1: Introduction and Nucleophilic Addition to Carbonyl GroupThe lesson focuses on nomenclature and properties of these molecules, as well as on the process of nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group.
Lesson 18 - Aldehydes and Ketones 2: Enols and EnolatesSpecifically, this lesson considers enols and enolates--two forms that are closely related to aldehydes and ketones and that are key to the behavior of these molecules.
Lesson 19 - Conjugated Unsaturated SystemsIn this lesson, we will consider the peculiar characteristics of conjugated dienes and their behavior in two particular reactions.
Lesson 20 - Synthesis and Reactions of β-Bicarbonyl CompoundsIn this lesson, we consider the special case of molecules that have two carbonyl groups separated by a single carbon atom.
Lesson 21 - Carboxylic Acids and DerivativesIn this lesson, we focus on carboxylic acids, which includes the commonly occurring acetic acid (a component of vinegar), and we also briefly introduce related compounds
Lesson 22 - AminesIn this lesson, we look more carefully at compounds containing nitrogen: specifically, amines.
Lesson 23 - Phenols and Aryl HalidesReturning once more to aromatic compounds, this lesson looks more closely at the characteristics and behavior of aryl halides (halogen-substituted benzene rings) and phenols.
Lesson 24 - CarbohydratesIn this lesson, we lightly introduce carbohydrates, which are a critical class of molecules for organisms.
Lesson 25 - LipidsThis course closes with a look at another type of organic compound that is critical to biological systems (organisms): lipids.
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Learning OutcomesBy successfully completing this course, students will be able to:
- Define chemical bonding.
- Describe the structure and representation of organic molecules.
- Describe acids and bases.
- Describe nomenclature.
- Demonstrate bonding, intermolecular forces, and functional groups.
- Describe nomenclature for alkyl halides, alcohols, alkenes, and alkynes.
- Summarize properties and synthesis.
- Identify addition reactions.
- Recognize nucleophilic substitution of alkyl halides.
- Demonstrate stereochemistry .
- Summarize free radical reactions.
- Define aromatic compounds (arenes).
- Define reactions of aromatic compounds.
- Summarize nmr, mass spectrometry, and infrared (ir) spectroscopy.
- Describe synthesis and reactions of alcohols.
- Summarize ethers and epoxides.
- Summarize nucleophilic addition to carbonyl group.
- Describe enols and enolates.
- Describe conjugated unsaturated systems.
- Recognize synthesis and reactions of β-bicarbonyl compounds.
- Describe carboxylic acids and derivatives.
- Summarize amines.
- Describe phenols and aryl halides.
- Identify carbohydrates.
- Describe lipids, and
- Demonstrate mastery of lesson content at levels of 70% or higher.
|Lesson 1 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 1 Bonding and Molecular Structure I: Chemical Bonding||Exam||10|
|Lesson 2 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 2 Bonding and Molecular Structure II: The Structure and Representation of Organic Molecules||Exam||9|
|Lesson 3 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 3 Acids and Bases||Exam||8|
|Lesson 4 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 4 Alkanes and Cycloalkanes I: Nomenclature||Exam||10|
|Lesson 5 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 5 Alkanes and Cycloalkanes II: Bonding, Intermolecular Forces, and Functional Groups||Exam||10|
|Lesson 6 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 6 Nomenclature for Alkyl Halides, Alcohols, Alkenes, and Alkynes||Exam||9|
|Lesson 7 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 7 Alkenes/Alkynes I: Properties and Synthesis||Exam||10|
|Lesson 8 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 8 Alkenes and Alkynes II: Addition Reactions||Exam||10|
|Lesson 9 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 9 Nucleophilic Substitution of Alkyl Halides||Exam||10|
|Lesson 10 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 10 Stereochemistry||Exam||5|
|Lesson 11 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 12 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 13 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 13 Reactions of Aromatic Compounds||Exam||10|
|Lesson 14 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 14 NMR, Mass Spectrometry, and Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy||Exam||10|
|Lesson 15 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 15 Synthesis and Reactions of Alcohols||Exam||10|
|Lesson 16 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 16 Ethers and Epoxides||Exam||10|
|Lesson 17 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 17 - Aldehydes and Ketones 1: Introduction and Nucleophilic Addition to Carbonyl Group||Exam||10|
|Lesson 18 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 18 - Aldehydes and Ketones 2: Enols and Enolates||Exam||10|
|Lesson 19 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 19 - Conjugated Unsaturated Systems||Exam||10|
|Lesson 20 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 20 - Synthesis and Reactions of β-Bicarbonyl Compounds||Exam||10|
|Lesson 21 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 21 - Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives||Exam||10|
|Lesson 22 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 22 - Amines||Exam||10|
|Lesson 23 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 23 - Phenols and Aryl Halides||Exam||9|
|Lesson 24 Assignment||Assignment||10|
|Lesson 24 - Carbohydrates||Exam||10|
|Lesson 25 - Lipids||Exam||9|
|The Final Exam||Exam||99|
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